Nigeria Internet Registration Association (NiRA)

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Authoritative and Recursive DNS Servers: What’s The Difference?

It is obvious the Domain Name System (DNS) is one of the most essential parts of the Internet’s infrastructure. The Domain Name System (DNS) comprises of two parts: Authoritative and Recursive Name Servers. The authoritative nameserver and recursive nameserver are important nameservers that enable DNS run seamlessly and actually respond to domain name request.

By using DNS, you can connect to a website like without having to know the website’s IP address. The Authoritative DNS system provides resources of the zone whilst the Recursive DNS holds information of the host for a given amount of time specified by that Records Time To Live (TTL) value.

Authoritative DNS nameservers are responsible for providing answers to requests made by other DNS nameservers (Recursive Servers) with the IP “mapping” of the intended website. The authoritative nameservers’ simply respond to the recursive nameservers contains important information for each domain, such as corresponding IP addresses and other necessary DNS records. Essentially authoritative nameservers are like the name mapping database, that is, it contains relationship existing between a registered domain name and it corresponding IP address.

Recursive nameservers are the intermediary that respond to domain requests. It provides answer to the request if it has cached earlier, else it proceeds to the authoritative server. The caching of the name are based on the default time to live (TTL)

At the top of the DNS tree are the root domain nameservers. Every domain has an implied/hidden “.” at the end of the name, that designates the DNS root nameservers at the top of the hierarchy. Root domain nameservers know the IP addresses of the authoritative nameservers that handle DNS queries for the Top Level Domains (TLD) like “.ng”. It first asks the root domain nameservers for the IP address of the TLD server, in this case, “.ng.” (working on

Afterwards it asks the authoritative server for “”, where it can find the “” domain’s authoritative server. Then “” is asked where to find “”. Once the IP address is known for the website the recursive DNS server responds to your computer with the appropriate IP address.

The quest for Great and Free Ideas!

There is a wrong perception amongst most startups that all ideas should be money-yielding, should be commercialized as soon as possible, then take the route of Initial Public Offer (IPO) where the promoters can then cash out and being liquid, start to enjoy some form of never-ending holiday in choice locations all around the world.

My motivation came from a discussion in the course of the week when a friend, in his bid to explain to me that the problem we were discussing is already solved by a University Don, save for the fact that the solution is in the cooler because of a little snag. The Don is looking for some investors or promoters to take the idea to the market and he has been searching for the past five years.

While some ideas can be commercialized immediately, it may take some time for the promoters of some other ideas to find the right means of commercializing some of their efforts.  This should not put such solutions in the cooler.

There are some ideas that are disruptive in nature, and therefore the initiators of such ideas may take their time to decide on the right model to make money. For example, as disruptive as it is, whatsapp took its time in deciding how to monetize the technology. For the users, It is convenient, but there are alternatives.

There is another group of ideas that solves very important problems that are definitely for the good of mankind. For example, if a cure is found for the dreaded AIDS by some researchers today, it will be wrong for them to keep such solutions in the cooler, because they are looking for the right model to commercialize the discovery.

Such important solutions to pressing societal problems should be available for general use as soon as possible. Indeed, the initiators of such ideas should be compensated by the society not only with adequate recognition for their efforts, but also some handsome financial reward for their efforts. Think of the state paying for the idea, on behalf of its citizens, knowing the immense benefit it will be to the larger society.

This, indeed is fulcrum of the argument of the proponents of Free education at all levels. The eventual gains from an educated society is far more than the costs that may be incurred  at any point in time.

Keeping great ideas in the cooler because they cannot be monetized is retrogressive and not in the interest of the larger society. I appeal to business moguls and mentors of the coming generation to help correct this notion.


I remain at your service.


Rev’d Sunday Folayan

President, NIRA Executive Board

October 2017 Domain Name Report

The total number of .ng domain name registrations has been on a steady increase, with a month-on-month growth of at least 1,500 active domains. Two new Registrars have been accredited since the last statistics were published. It is estimated that active .ng domain registrations will surpass the 100,000 mark before the end of the year 2017. 



The data shows an improvement in registrations, compared to registrations in the last three years. With less than two months to the end of the year, based on the various projects and awareness programmes of NIRA, it is expected that many more businesses and individuals will take up their .ng domain names.

ngNOG 2017 Workshop and Conference

The 12th edition of the annual Nigerian Network Operators’ Group (ngNOG) Conference and Technology Workshop held from the 30th of October to 4th of November 2017 at Hotel Reno, Abuja.

The conference, which held on the 30th October 2017, aimed at exchanging technical information between operators of Internet-connected networks in Nigeria. The keynote speakers included Mr Abdul-Hakeem Ajijola of Consultancy Support Services, Mr. Oyaje Idoko of Layer3, Mr. Dewole Ajao of the Bandwidth Consortium and the NiRA President, Rev. Sunday Folayan. These topics included Cyberwarfare Norms, 21st Century Campuses, Network Peering and Interconnection, as well as the Domain Name Industry. 

The Training Workshop followed, from Tuesday 31st October to 4th November 2017, offering training and coaching to those who are in the process of developing, enhancing and managing an Internet-connected network with local and international connectivity.

The participants included mid-level and senior technical staff of research and education networks, public and private networks, commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs), NGOs and other stakeholders.

The workshop is the domestication of the annual AfNOG workshops held annually since 2000, which itself is a continental domestication of the Internet Society's INET workshops, held annually from 1993 to 2000 at eight locations around the world.

NITDA Holds eNigeria 2017

On Tuesday, 7th November 2017, eNigeria 2017 was officially declared open by Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR, The President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Accompanying The President to this event was Barrister Adebayo Shittu, Nigeria’s Honourable Minister of Communications and a host of other dignitaries from the public and private sector. 

eNigeria is an annual Information Technology (IT) summit organized by the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), to bring together relevant stakeholders from the private, public, non-governmental sectors and the international IT community. It is a veritable Platform for ICT awareness creation, developing the appropriate framework and setting goals for best practices to position Nigeria in the global information society.

This year’s theme is “Fostering Digital Economy through Local Content Development and Effective Regulations”.

Dr. Isa Ali Ibrahim Pantami, Director General/CEO, National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), as the host, delivered the Welcome Address.

In his address, the President stated that a renewed focus in ICT has yielded positive effect on the Nigerian economy, citing examples of the Biometric Verification Number (BVN) and Treasury Single Account (TSA) exercises.

The three-day conference provided opportunities for organizations and Start-ups to exhibit their products. NiRA exhibited at the event, together with three of its Accredited Registrars, courtesy of NITDA, to create further awareness of the .ng brand.

NITDA also provided Free exhibition stands to a number of students in Secondary and Tertiary Institutions of learning to showcase their creations. The event, targeting over 10,000 visitors was well attended by participants from government representatives, ICT experts, public sector, the organized private sector and as well as SMEs.

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