Nigeria Internet Registration Association (NiRA)

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AFRINIC 27 MEETING

INFORMATION SECURITY: THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES

Information, according to Merriam-Webster dictionary, is “the communication or reception of knowledge or intelligence”. It was also put as “knowledge obtained from investigation, study or instruction” and likened to facts, data and intelligence. Information Security (sometimes shortened to IS or InfoSec) is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, inspection or destruction of digital and non-digital information.

 

There are several techniques or methods of social engineering used to attack sensitive, private and confidential information. Some of these are:

Phishing and Spear Phishing techniques focuses on sending out a lot of generalized e-mails with the expectations that only a few people will reveal private information/data. Spear phishing emails require the attacker to perform additional research on their targets in order to trick them into performing requested activities. 

Voice phishing also called Vishing uses a rogue interactive voice response (IVR) system to recreate a legitimate-sounding copy of a bank or other institution's IVR system. The victims are informed to call in to the bank via a number provided in order to verify information. The victims receive the message vie e-mail and more advanced systems transfer the victim to the attacker/phisher, who poses as a customer service agent or security expert for further questioning of the victim.

Watering Hole: a computer attack strategy where the attacker guesses or observes websites a particular group/organization/industry/region often use and infects one or more of them with malware so that the members get infected. Relying on websites that the group trusts makes this strategy efficient, even with groups that are resistant to spear phishing and other forms of phishing.

Online Baiting exploits human curiosity. Attackers create malware-infected floppy disk, CD-ROMs, or USB flash drives and give them legitimate labels that should make people curious to plug them into systems, leave them in locations where people/targets will find them. Inserting the disk into a computer installs malware, giving attacker’s access to the victim's PC and possibly the target company's internal computer network.

Quid Pro Quo Social Engineering Attack aka “something for something”. This is a strategy where an attacker creates/causes a problem for the victim, then gets across to the victim pretending to be a technical support officer or agent or someone that can offer help, the attacker eventually helps the victim get rid of the problem but in the process request the target input commands that allows the attacker launch malware or gives the attacker access. 

Fortunately there are several ways to prevent or mitigate these attacks and they include:

  • Implement data classification in the organization and grant privileges only on “need to know” basis
  • Identify which information is sensitive and evaluate its exposure to exploiters and breakdowns in security systems.
  • Establishing security protocols, policies, and procedures for handling sensitive information.
  • Training employees in security protocols relevant to their position. If a person's identity cannot be verified, then employees must be trained to politely refuse.
  • Specify and train personnel when/where/why/how sensitive information should be handled
  • Perform unannounced, periodic tests of the security framework.
  • Prevent social engineering and other fraudulent tricks or traps by instilling a resistance to persuasion attempts through exposure to similar or related attempts.
  • Enforce approved regular software updates and patches.
  • Install shredding machines in sensitive areas.
  • Don’t throw away or discard old disks carelessly. Ensure proper procedures are maintained for disposal of old computer systems.
  • Conduct security awareness seminars for all staff and vendors who must work within your network.

Companies should thoroughly monitor their websites and networks and then block any traffic, if malicious content is detected. Most times, employees become the moles and create the loop holes to leak information. It is advised that a non-disclosure agreement be signed annually to keep sensitive information undisclosed and make employees more responsible for its safety. Be wise in handling of information and smarter in disclosing information.

 

DIGITAL MARKETING

The definitions of digital marketing vary according to an author's point of view, background and specialization.

According to Chaffey, Digital Marketing is the use of technologies to help marketing activities in order to improve customer knowledge by matching their needs. (Chaffey, 2013.)

According to Strauss and Frost, Digital Marketing is the use of electronic data and applications for planning and executing the conception, distribution and pricing of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. (Strauss and Frost, 2001:454)

 We can also say that Digital Marketing is a new philosophy and a modern business practice involved with the marketing of goods, services, information and ideas via the internet and other electronic means. It encompasses all initiatives undertaken by a firm to maintain an online presence and to promote its products, brands, campaigns etc. using tools such as official websites, social media pages, mobile apps, blogs etc.

Brief History 

The first search engine started in 1991 with a network protocol called Gopher for query and search. After the launch of Yahoo in 1994, companies started to maximize their ranking on the website. (Smyth, 2007).

In 2001, the market was dominated by Google and Yahoo for search optimization. In 2006, the rise of search engine optimization grew for major companies like Google. (Smyth, 2007). In 2007, the usage of mobile devices increased the internet usage and people all over the world started connecting with each other more conveniently through social media

Digital marketing's development since the 1990's and 2000's has changed the way brands and businesses utilize technology for marketing. As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life, and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops, digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient.

Exploring Digital Marketing

Smith and Chaffey, 2005 defines marketing as achieving marketing objectives by applying digital technologies. Digital marketing is not only a fast growing force in the current marketing playing field, it is set to be the future of marketing, and digital media might soon replace more traditional forms altogether. In developed world, companies have realized the importance of digital marketing in order for businesses to be successful, they will have to merge online with traditional methods for meeting the needs of customers more precisely. (Parsons, Zeisser, Waitman 1996).

Digital marketing strategies involve utilizing existing and rising communication and data networks to inform personalized and uninterrupted communication between the firm and its customers and to provide worth above customary networks (Watson et al, 2002). It is more convenient for businesses to conduct surveys online with the purpose of getting relevant information from targeted groups and analyzing the results based on their responses. Potential customers can look for reviews and recommendations to make informed decisions about buying a product or using the service. On the other hand businesses can use the exercise to take action on relevant feedback from customers in meeting their needs more accurately.

Digital marketing techniques such as Search Engines Optimization (SEO), Search Engine Marketing (SEM), Content Marketing, Influencer Marketing, Content Automation, Campaign Marketing, Data-driven marketing and E-commerce marketing, Social media marketing, Social Media Optimization, E-mail direct marketing, Display Advertising, E-books, and Optimal disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology.

The Search Engine Optimization (SEO) maximizes the way search engines like google find your website. For example, a consumer gets on the internet and types in a keyword related to country code top level domain system. Thanks to your company's Search Engine Marketing (SEM) strategy, your company is listed on the first page (perhaps even at the top). The consumer clicks on the links to your company's website and completes contact information. The lead goes to one of your registrars who then provides the needed services to the consumers.

Digital marketing has a broader scope than internet marketing since internet Marketing (IM) refers only to the internet, world wide web, e-mails, while digital marketing includes all of that plus all other E-marketing tools like: intranets, extranets, mobile phones etc.    

 

 

NiRA AT AMAA 2017

The 13th African Movie Academy Awards (AMAA) ceremony held on July 15, 2017 at the Convention Centre of Eko Hotel and Suites, Victoria Island, Lagos

The Awards Ceremony was hosted by Nse Ikpe Etim, an Nollywood actor. The event was well attended by Actors from Nigeria and other African Countries. Indeed, it could be said that the event was one of glitz and glamour, as guests in glamorous outfits posed on the Green Carpet.

The event was formally declared open by the Representative of the Executive Governor of Lagos State in person of the Deputy Governor, her Excellency Mrs Idiat Oluranti Adebule. Lagos State promised support for the creative industry.

Some of the Award winners of the Night included Nigeria historical Drama ’76, which won three awards from its eight nominations and the “Lifetime Achievement Award” by the organisers, as special recognition honour to veteran comic- actor Nkem Owoh.

Mrs. Peace Anyiam –Osigwe, the founder of AMAA encourages all to use the motion pictures to tell the African story.

Jahwar Soudani's role in "Last of Us" earned him the Award For Best Actress in a Leading Role. Senegalese movie, Felicite, emerged the biggest winner of the night.  The movie won six AMAAs, the most of all the contenders. Felicite took home awards in three of the five major categories, winning Best Film, Best Actress in a Leading Role, and Best Supporting Actor.

The Awards Ceremony is a good platform to explore the African Movie Industry to promote the .ng brand. Nollywood in particular, is a sector which has grown is leaps in recent years and is doing as fantastic job promoting local content. The local hosting of its content would save Nigeria a lot of capital flight, create jobs locally whilst providing or educating the world on the cultural values of Nigeria.

NiRA is exploring the possibility of collaborating in the areas of copyright protection, growth and export of local content amongst others.  

The full list of the 13th AMAA winners can be found on the AMAA website.

 

 

Help NIRA host AFRINIC-27

AFRINIC holds two open public policy meetings every year in various locations throughout its service region. The AFRINIC Meetings provide a unique opportunity for Internet-related individuals and organisations to gather and to discuss the policies governing Internet number resource distribution in the African region, to share technical knowledge, and to attend workshops and tutorials.

The first meeting of each year is held during the Africa Internet Summit (AIS). The annual AIS is a regional multi-stakeholder ICT conference which brings together Africa's ICT business and technical community to discuss regional and global ICT issues and challenges. The AIS is organised jointly by AFRINIC and AfNOG. An Annual General Meeting (AGM) is also held during the first AFRINIC Meeting of each year.

The second meeting in each year is a stand-alone meeting, dubbed the Public Policy meeting. NIRA will be hosting the 2017 Public Policy Meeting, tagged AFRINIC-27 in Lagos from 27th November 2017 to 2nd December 2017. A typical AFRINIC meeting can have up to 400 attendees.

My appeal is that all NIRA stakeholders should key into the program of activities for the Meeting. There are sponsorship opportunities, Workshops, Trainings and Tutorials on Internet Governance, Internet Number Resources Management, IPV6 etc. that will be of immense benefit to everyone.

If you do want to be a part of this event, please do not hesitate to contact the NIRA Secretariat.

Let’s do it!!

 

I remain at your service.

 

Rev’d Sunday Folayan

President, NIRA Executive Board

NIGF 2017

At the forthcoming Nigeria Internet Governance Forum (NIGF) scheduled to hold from the 10th – 13th July, 2017 in Kaduna, NiRA Academy would facilitate for two days, at a training workshop for Law Enforcement Agents on DNS Abuse and the role of the Law Enforcement Agents. All are invited. For more details on NIGF 2017, please click on the link https://www.nigf.org.ng/index.php/nigf-2017/nigf-2017-press-release